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The Sino-Russian pending area originated from the "Nerchinsky Treaty", and the signing of the "Nerchinsky Treaty" originated from the Sino-Russian agreement.
The Battle of Yaxa is a battle between China and Russia around the city of Yaxa. In the winter of 1665, Chernigovsky occupied and rebuilt the city of Yaksa, and used it as a base to recruit troops and expand its power, which brought the Qing border
Chernigovsky was born in Ukraine and was originally a nobleman of the Polish-Lithuanian Federation. In 1664, Governor Ilimsk raped Chernigovsky's daughter. In order to retaliate against Governor Ilimsk, Chernigovsky killed him the following year. Then 84 Cossacks were organized to march to Heilongjiang, and finally reached the destroyed city of Albazin.
Chernigovsky established a small kingdom in the local area, this small kingdom extended to 50 kilometers from Albazin
In 1681, Emperor Kangxi put down the "San Francisco Rebellion" and decided
On May 22, the Qing army soldier Chen Yaksa, the Russian army resisted the city after refusing the Qing army's persuasion to surrender. On the evening of the 23rd, the Qing army besieged the city of Yaksa by water and land. After 3 days of fierce battle, the city of Yaksa
However, shortly after the Qing army withdrew, Torbzin invaded Yaksa again in August 1685. After learning that Torbzin regained the city of Yaksa, Kangxi immediately decided
In February 1686, Heilongjiang general Sabsu and others led his army to besiege the city of Yaksa. The main strategy of the Qing army was to cut off the water source in the city of Yaxa on the one hand, and to use cannons to bombard it. Torbzin
Just one month after the Second Battle of Yaksa, in December 1686, the Russian Messenger
After reaching a consensus, the two parties respectively selected key personnel as negotiators. The Chinese representative in charge of the negotiations is the Minister of the Guard
Zhang Cheng is French, his original name is Jean-Francois Gerbillon, he is a Jesuit hired by the Qing Dynasty. During the negotiation of the Treaty of Nerchinsk, Zhang Cheng and another Jesuit hired by the Qing Dynasty, Xu Risheng (Portuguese, formerly Pereira, Thomas)
In the initial stage of the negotiations, the Russian side believed that the Chinese station was too close to Nerchinsk. This arrangement
Treaties are available in Latin, Manchu, and Russian
The contents of the Nerchinsk Treaty mainly include the following six aspects.
1. The Geerbiqi River, Ergun River and Waixing'an Mountains are the borders of China and Russia. However, how to divide the rivers and the land between the Xing'an Mountains and the Wudi River must be determined before negotiation.
2. The city barrier built by the Russians in Yaksa should be removed immediately. All Russians living in the city need to move back to Russia. The Orion people of China and Russia are not allowed to cross the established border without authorization.
3. From the date of signing the treaty, the two countries shall not accept fugitives from each other. If fugitives are found, they must be repatriated to their own country.
4. The Chinese people already living in Russia and the Russians living in China still need to abide by the previous regulations.
5. From the date of signing the treaty, the people of the two countries can cross the border with passports.
6. The two countries abolish all disputes, form good neighbors forever, and strictly abide by the Charter.
The signing of the Nerchinsk Treaty is of great significance to China and Russia. As far as China is concerned, the Treaty of Nerchinsk affirmed that the vast areas of Heilongjiang and the Wusuli River are Chinese territory.
In the process of border demarcation negotiations,
Among them, the most controversial section of the border is the northeastern section of China and Russia. The relevant content of the three text versions
But in fact, the Manchu and Russian versions of the Treaty of Nerchinsk are both
The Latin version describes the area under discussion as, "
The two sides have different views on this area to be discussed. The direction of Xing'an Mountains identified by the Qing government is
In fact, in reality, the issue of the pending area is largely
The reasons for the China-Russia pending area mainly include
The external cause is at that time
Internal factors are even more critical. Before the late Qing Dynasty, China was far
Although the "Nerchinsk Treaty" has the issue of a pending area, the signing of the treaty objectively promotes
After the signing of the Treaty of Nerchinsk, large Russian caravans came to China every year to exchange markets. The main goods of Russian merchants included precious furs such as fox fur, sable fur, silver rat fur, clocks, leather, woolen cloth, Mirror etc. Russian merchants brought them to Beijing for sale, and then purchased Chinese tea, Chinese medicinal materials, silk, gold and silver utensils, cotton cloth, dyes, gems, pearls, tobacco, etc., and brought them back to Russia for sales, and obtained high profits from them. The most typical example is that in 1693, the Itais caravan carried 4,400 rubles belonging to the Russian treasury and 14,000 rubles of private goods, and the Emperor Kangxi himself "summoned the reward."
Personal profit is only one of the influences of the Nerchinsk Treaty, and more importantly, it promotes the development of the city. Take Qiqihar, which we are very familiar with today, as an example. During the Yaksa War, Qiqihar was nothing more than a small village in the rear of the Qing army to maintain military horses. After the signing of the Nerchinsk Treaty, according to the new border, Qiqihar’s important position in the defense system of the northeast frontier was highlighted, and it quickly developed into a major northern town that echoed with Nerchinsk. It recognized rapid growth and continued trade. It was extremely attractive to Russian businessmen in the Nerchinsk region.
However, with the signing of the "Aihui Treaty" in 1858, the disputed area that had been arguing for many years also moved away to the other side of Heilongjiang.
VIEW BY Geo Valley