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火狐app免费下载_为什么会有“中俄待议区”?



发布日期:2021-03-26 00:46:01 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

This article is reprinted from the public account "Geo-Valley" (id: Geo-Valley) with authorization and may not be reprinted without authorization.

本文经授权已从公共帐户“ Geo-Valley”(标识:Geo-Valley)转载,未经授权,不得转载。

The Sino-Russian pending area originated from the "Nerchinsky Treaty", and the signing of the "Nerchinsky Treaty" originated from the Sino-Russian agreement.

中俄待定地区源于《尼钦斯基条约》,《尼钦斯基条约》的签署源于中俄协定。

The Battle of Yaxa is a battle between China and Russia around the city of Yaxa. In the winter of 1665, Chernigovsky occupied and rebuilt the city of Yaksa, and used it as a base to recruit troops and expand its power, which brought the Qing border

Yaxa之战是Yaxa市周围的中俄之间的一场战斗。 1665年冬,切尔尼戈夫斯基占领并重建了雅克萨市,并以此为基地招募军队并扩大实力,这带来了清朝边界

Chernigovsky was born in Ukraine and was originally a nobleman of the Polish-Lithuanian Federation. In 1664, Governor Ilimsk raped Chernigovsky's daughter. In order to retaliate against Governor Ilimsk, Chernigovsky killed him the following year. Then 84 Cossacks were organized to march to Heilongjiang, and finally reached the destroyed city of Albazin.

切尔尼戈夫斯基出生于乌克兰,最初是波兰立陶宛联邦的贵族。 1664年,州长伊林斯克强奸了切尔尼戈夫斯基的女儿。为了报复伊林斯克州长,次年切尔尼戈夫斯基杀了他。然后,组织了84名哥萨克人前往黑龙江,最后到达了被毁的城市阿尔巴辛。

Chernigovsky established a small kingdom in the local area, this small kingdom extended to 50 kilometers from Albazin

切尔尼戈夫斯基在当地建立了一个小王国,这个小王国距阿尔巴辛50公里

In 1681, Emperor Kangxi put down the "San Francisco Rebellion" and decided

1681年,康熙皇帝平定了“旧金山叛乱”,

On May 22, the Qing army soldier Chen Yaksa, the Russian army resisted the city after refusing the Qing army's persuasion to surrender. On the evening of the 23rd, the Qing army besieged the city of Yaksa by water and land. After 3 days of fierce battle, the city of Yaksa

5月22日,俄罗斯清军士兵陈雅克在拒绝清军的说服后投降了该市。 23日晚,清军用水陆包围了雅克市。经过三天的激战,雅克市

However, shortly after the Qing army withdrew, Torbzin invaded Yaksa again in August 1685. After learning that Torbzin regained the city of Yaksa, Kangxi immediately decided

然而,在清军撤退后不久,1685年8月,托宾又入侵雅克。在得知托宾重夺雅克市后,康熙立即决定

In February 1686, Heilongjiang general Sabsu and others led his army to besiege the city of Yaksa. The main strategy of the Qing army was to cut off the water source in the city of Yaxa on the one hand, and to use cannons to bombard it. Torbzin

1686年2月,黑龙江萨布苏将军等人率领军队围攻了亚克萨市。清军的主要战略是一方面切断雅克萨市的水源,然后用大炮对其进行轰击。托布津

Just one month after the Second Battle of Yaksa, in December 1686, the Russian Messenger

在1686年12月的第二次Yaksa战斗之后一个月,俄国使者

After reaching a consensus, the two parties respectively selected key personnel as negotiators. The Chinese representative in charge of the negotiations is the Minister of the Guard

双方达成共识后,分别选择关键人员作为谈判代表。负责谈判的中国代表是卫队部长

Zhang Cheng is French, his original name is Jean-Francois Gerbillon, he is a Jesuit hired by the Qing Dynasty. During the negotiation of the Treaty of Nerchinsk, Zhang Cheng and another Jesuit hired by the Qing Dynasty, Xu Risheng (Portuguese, formerly Pereira, Thomas)

张成是法国人,原名让-弗朗索瓦·吉比隆,是清朝雇用的耶稣会士。在谈判《涅尔钦斯克条约》期间,张诚和清朝雇用的另一位耶稣会士徐日生(葡萄牙语,原名佩雷拉,托马斯)

In the initial stage of the negotiations, the Russian side believed that the Chinese station was too close to Nerchinsk. This arrangement

在谈判初期,俄罗斯方面认为中国站离涅尔钦斯克太近了。这种安排

Treaties are available in Latin, Manchu, and Russian

条约有拉丁文,满文和俄文

The contents of the Nerchinsk Treaty mainly include the following six aspects.

《涅尔钦斯克条约》的内容主要包括以下六个方面。

1. The Geerbiqi River, Ergun River and Waixing'an Mountains are the borders of China and Russia. However, how to divide the rivers and the land between the Xing'an Mountains and the Wudi River must be determined before negotiation.

1.格尔比奇河,额尔古纳河和外兴安岭是中国和俄罗斯的边界。但是,在谈判之前必须确定如何在兴安山脉和无di河之间划分河流和土地。

2. The city barrier built by the Russians in Yaksa should be removed immediately. All Russians living in the city need to move back to Russia. The Orion people of China and Russia are not allowed to cross the established border without authorization.

2.俄罗斯人在雅克萨(Yaksa)修建的城市隔离墙应立即清除。居住在城市中的所有俄罗斯人都需要搬回俄罗斯。未经允许,中国和俄罗斯的猎户座人民不得越过既定边界。

3. From the date of signing the treaty, the two countries shall not accept fugitives from each other. If fugitives are found, they must be repatriated to their own country.

3.自签署条约之日起,两国不得接受彼此的逃犯。如果发现逃犯,则必须将其遣返自己的国家。

4. The Chinese people already living in Russia and the Russians living in China still need to abide by the previous regulations.

4.已经生活在俄罗斯的中国人和生活在中国的俄罗斯人仍然需要遵守以前的规定。

5. From the date of signing the treaty, the people of the two countries can cross the border with passports.

五,自签署条约之日起,两国人民可持护照过境。

6. The two countries abolish all disputes, form good neighbors forever, and strictly abide by the Charter.

6.两国废除一切争端,永远结成睦邻,并严格遵守《宪章》。

The signing of the Nerchinsk Treaty is of great significance to China and Russia. As far as China is concerned, the Treaty of Nerchinsk affirmed that the vast areas of Heilongjiang and the Wusuli River are Chinese territory.

《尼钦斯克条约》的签署对中国和俄罗斯具有重要意义。就中国而言,《尼钦斯克条约》申明,黑龙江和乌苏里河的广大地区都是中国领土。

In the process of border demarcation negotiations,

在边界划定谈判中,

Among them, the most controversial section of the border is the northeastern section of China and Russia. The relevant content of the three text versions

其中,边界最有争议的部分是中国和俄罗斯的东北部分。三种文字版本的相关内容

But in fact, the Manchu and Russian versions of the Treaty of Nerchinsk are both

但实际上,《涅尔钦斯克条约》的满语和俄语版本都是

The Latin version describes the area under discussion as, "

拉丁文版本将讨论中的区域描述为:

The two sides have different views on this area to be discussed. The direction of Xing'an Mountains identified by the Qing government is

双方对此有不同的看法。清政府确定的兴安岭方向为

In fact, in reality, the issue of the pending area is largely

实际上,实际上,未决区域的问题在很大程度上

The reasons for the China-Russia pending area mainly include

中俄待定地区的原因主要包括

The external cause is at that time

外部原因是在那个时候

Internal factors are even more critical. Before the late Qing Dynasty, China was far

内部因素更为关键。清末以前,中国遥远

Although the "Nerchinsk Treaty" has the issue of a pending area, the signing of the treaty objectively promotes

火狐app官网尽管《涅尔钦斯克条约》有待解决的问题,但该条约的签署客观上促进了

After the signing of the Treaty of Nerchinsk, large Russian caravans came to China every year to exchange markets. The main goods of Russian merchants included precious furs such as fox fur, sable fur, silver rat fur, clocks, leather, woolen cloth, Mirror etc. Russian merchants brought them to Beijing for sale, and then purchased Chinese tea, Chinese medicinal materials, silk, gold and silver utensils, cotton cloth, dyes, gems, pearls, tobacco, etc., and brought them back to Russia for sales, and obtained high profits from them. The most typical example is that in 1693, the Itais caravan carried 4,400 rubles belonging to the Russian treasury and 14,000 rubles of private goods, and the Emperor Kangxi himself "summoned the reward."

在签署《涅尔钦斯克条约》后,每年都有大型俄罗斯商队来中国交易市场。俄罗斯商人的主要商品包括狐狸皮,黑貂皮,银鼠皮,钟表,皮革,羊毛布,镜子等珍贵的皮毛。俄罗斯商人将它们带到北京出售,然后购买了中国茶,中药材,丝绸,金银器皿,棉布,染料,宝石,珍珠,烟草等,并带回俄罗斯销售,并从中获得高额利润。最典型的例子是,在1693年,Itais大篷车运送了4,400卢布的俄罗斯国库券和14,000卢布的私人物品,而康熙皇帝本人则“召集了报酬”。

Personal profit is only one of the influences of the Nerchinsk Treaty, and more importantly, it promotes the development of the city. Take Qiqihar, which we are very familiar with today, as an example. During the Yaksa War, Qiqihar was nothing more than a small village in the rear of the Qing army to maintain military horses. After the signing of the Nerchinsk Treaty, according to the new border, Qiqihar’s important position in the defense system of the northeast frontier was highlighted, and it quickly developed into a major northern town that echoed with Nerchinsk. It recognized rapid growth and continued trade. It was extremely attractive to Russian businessmen in the Nerchinsk region.

个人利益只是《尼钦斯克条约》的影响之一,更重要的是,它促进了城市的发展。以我们今天非常熟悉的齐齐哈尔市为例。在Yaksa战争期间,齐齐哈尔只不过是清军后方的一个小村庄,用来养马。 《尼钦斯克条约》签署后,根据新边界,齐齐哈尔在东北边境防御系统中的重要地位得到了彰显,并迅速发展成为与尼钦斯克相呼应的北部主要城镇。它认识到快速增长和持续贸易。这对涅尔钦斯克地区的俄罗斯商人极具吸引力。

However, with the signing of the "Aihui Treaty" in 1858, the disputed area that had been arguing for many years also moved away to the other side of Heilongjiang.

然而,随着1858年《爱会条约》的签署,已经争论多年的有争议地区也转移到了黑龙江的另一端。

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